It’s almost impossible to find an online crime that can’t benefit from computer forensics services. Any information that is passed along through computers, fax machines or cell phones, to name a few, can be accessed, analyzed and reported on by a computer forensics expert.
One service provided by computer forensics includes electronic discovery. This is where documents, email, intellectual property, trade secrets, copyright issues, databases, internet activity, instant messaging, computer security and network intrusion are all examined and determined what information might be valuable to a case or situation. This area is used when a client has knowledge of what information is on the computer, or other device, and needs help in guiding them in the right direction as to how to use the data.
Computer forensics services also include data discovery and analysis. This is when a computer forensics team uses techniques to retrieve data that was thought to be lost. Once this material is recovered it is then analyzed to determine who the author was, when it was created/deleted and it’s relevance to your specific situation. This is an important phase that needs to be handled very carefully as to not lose sensitive information. Even turning a computer on or off can corrupt evidence.
An extremely important computer forensic service is the preservation of evidence. In this step a forensic image is made of all pertinent data. This image is actually what is being analyzed and the original source where the data was extracted is put in a safe and confidential environment. The security and authenticity of this information is analyzed very carefully and handled only by a digital forensics expert.
Once these steps are properly completed it is the job of the computer forensics analyst to piece together a report on the findings. All of the evidence needs to be carefully phrased and should only contain key issues that are relevant to that specific situation. The goal here is to put together everything that pertains to that case and will have the highest chance of success.
Usually, computer forensic services are utilized in a court of law. With this in mind, it’s imperative that a cyber forensics analyst is able to give an expert testimony on their findings. The computer forensic examination needs to be exact with its evidence and whoever is representing the forensics company needs to be well spoken, persuasive and extremely accurate with their testimony.
All of these services are important aspects of the computer forensics realm. Each area needs to be carried out in a very specific and careful way so no evidence is ever tampered with or mishandled. Each step of the process is just as important as the first which is why it takes many years of experience to be considered an expert in this field. Each project should be considered as valuable as the next and it’s not only important to maintain the services currently offered through computer forensics but to strive to stay on the cutting edge of technology and be able to combat anything that is new to the game.
There is little debate that electronic technology including computers and the Internet are one of the most important developments of recent times. Tasks that took days to complete and that demanded hundreds of man hours to effectively execute can now be easily done at the touch of a button. But the growing importance of technology is not without its drawbacks with probably the most major one being internet and computer enabled crime.
The growing capability of computers and applications as well as the ever increasing level of interconnectivity and information sharing has made it easier for persons with malicious intent to use computers to plan terrorism attacks, conduct intellectual property theft, credit card fraud and hack computer systems to gain access to confidential information. The sophisticated nature of these crimes has seen the growing need for experts in computer forensics.
Computer forensics experts are law enforcement officers, private investigators or members of corporate audit teams whose core duties revolve around the identification, collection and analysis of electronic evidence that demonstrates the occurrence of a crime or lack thereof. Sometimes referred to as cyber cops, digital detectives or cyber investigators, their goal is not only reactive where they piece together pieces of computer data from a crime scene – it is also proactive where the computer forensics expert will recommend the best approaches that can be used to seal system security gaps and reduce the risk of computer based crime from materializing.
Computer forensic jobs will often be found in the military, law enforcement agencies, government intelligence outfits, private investigators office, technology security consultants and audit firms. To have better chances of being called up for a computer forensic job interview, one must have a degree in computer science, computer engineering, electronic engineering or a related discipline. Knowledge of the criminal justice system and especially laws around cyber crime and management of digital evidence including gathering and storing the evidence are key. Due to the sensitive nature of this role, persons working as computer forensic experts must obtain security clearance.
A good understanding of at least one major programming language with working knowledge of others is also important. Computer forensic experts must know the workings of computer storage devices and the major operating systems.
Many persons that end up in computer forensic careers do not necessarily start in this line. Working in the general IT industry or in the general IT security niche for at least two years provides a good foundation for understanding the core workings of computer systems and the areas of control weakness that cyber criminals may explore.
The details that these digital detectives have to sift through require that one have a keen eye for detail if they are not to miss anything. Other than technical computer skills, the forensic experts must be analytical and have high integrity. The ability to work well in a high pressure environment is a must as many times, the forensics expert will be required to provide rapid feedback on an adverse incident.
Computer forensics jobs are the most popular career option in the information technology (IT) industry. People working in this profession get attractive remuneration packages for the work they do. The best thing about this option is that it has many opportunities for career development. The high demand for computer forensics jobs can be attributed to the rapid increase in the number of computer related crimes. Experts in this field can be employed in a number of different areas such as law enforcement, businesses, intelligence agencies, the military and other commercial corporations.
The Job Description of Computer Forensic Analysts
These professionals use their IT skills to gather evidence that can be used in courts of law to convict criminals. Their job involves gathering useful data from email accounts, the Internet and different types of digital media. Incriminating evidence can also be obtained from laptops, PDAs and cell phones. The most common crimes that these professionals usually investigate include identity theft, child pornography, embezzlement, and hacking. Generally, they investigate crimes that involve the use of digital media.
Computer forensics jobs vary depending on the type of computer degree one has and area of specialization. For instance, IT professionals with extensive knowledge of accounting are best to investigate embezzlement cases. Data recovery is also an important skill for forensic investigators. This is because criminals often erase electronic data to cover their tracks. The data recovered is admissible in court.
Qualifications and Skills required
Science is a very important subject for forensic investigators. Specialists in digital forensics must have extensive knowledge of computers. These experts must understand several programming languages. They must also have extensive knowledge of computer hardware. Having an analytical mind, an eye for detail and a high degree of honesty and integrity is also a requirement. For a person to become a certified computer forensics analyst, he or she must also complete a certification course.
These courses vary according to the level of expertise required and the area of specialization. Professionals in this field are also required to sign a Code of Ethics. You can learn more about the profession by doing a simple online search.
Reasons Why You Should Look for Computer Forensics Jobs
Great prospects: In these harsh economic times where the rate of unemployment is so high, computer forensics jobs are available in plenty. Apart from job openings in law enforcement, you can also become a digital media analyst, a forensic consultant, an independent investigator or a network security officer.
Career Advancement: The more specialized you become, the better your career prospects.
Lucrative Income: A computer forensics salary can range from $80,000 annually to $120,000. However, remuneration packages depend on the type of employer one has, experience and level of expertise.
Exciting Career: Nothing is more exciting than tracking down criminals from your desk. You will experience a great deal of satisfaction from your job.
Where to find Computer Forensics Jobs
Experts in this field can be employed in private companies, government agencies and big corporations. Currently, the demand for professionals who can detect and prevent crimes such as fraud and embezzlement is very high. There is also the growing need for policing the cyber world.
Most of these job opportunities will require a forensic science degree and some experience. After completion of forensics training, a person can be employed regardless of his or her experience.
Computer forensics is the practice of collecting, analysing and reporting on digital information in a way that is legally admissible. It can be used in the detection and prevention of crime and in any dispute where evidence is stored digitally. Computer forensics has comparable examination stages to other forensic disciplines and faces similar issues.
About this guide
This guide discusses computer forensics from a neutral perspective. It is not linked to particular legislation or intended to promote a particular company or product and is not written in bias of either law enforcement or commercial computer forensics. It is aimed at a non-technical audience and provides a high-level view of computer forensics. This guide uses the term “computer”, but the concepts apply to any device capable of storing digital information. Where methodologies have been mentioned they are provided as examples only and do not constitute recommendations or advice. Copying and publishing the whole or part of this article is licensed solely under the terms of the Creative Commons – Attribution Non-Commercial 3.0 license
Uses of computer forensics
There are few areas of crime or dispute where computer forensics cannot be applied. Law enforcement agencies have been among the earliest and heaviest users of computer forensics and consequently have often been at the forefront of developments in the field. Computers may constitute a ‘scene of a crime’, for example with hacking [ 1] or denial of service attacks  or they may hold evidence in the form of emails, internet history, documents or other files relevant to crimes such as murder, kidnap, fraud and drug trafficking. It is not just the content of emails, documents and other files which may be of interest to investigators but also the ‘meta-data’  associated with those files. A computer forensic examination may reveal when a document first appeared on a computer, when it was last edited, when it was last saved or printed and which user carried out these actions.
More recently, commercial organisations have used computer forensics to their benefit in a variety of cases such as;
Intellectual Property theft
Inappropriate email and internet use in the work place
For evidence to be admissible it must be reliable and not prejudicial, meaning that at all stages of this process admissibility should be at the forefront of a computer forensic examiner’s mind. One set of guidelines which has been widely accepted to assist in this is the Association of Chief Police Officers Good Practice Guide for Computer Based Electronic Evidence or ACPO Guide for short. Although the ACPO Guide is aimed at United Kingdom law enforcement its main principles are applicable to all computer forensics in whatever legislature. The four main principles from this guide have been reproduced below (with references to law enforcement removed):
No action should change data held on a computer or storage media which may be subsequently relied upon in court.
In circumstances where a person finds it necessary to access original data held on a computer or storage media, that person must be competent to do so and be able to give evidence explaining the relevance and the implications of their actions.
An audit trail or other record of all processes applied to computer-based electronic evidence should be created and preserved. An independent third-party should be able to examine those processes and achieve the same result.
The person in charge of the investigation has overall responsibility for ensuring that the law and these principles are adhered to.
In summary, no changes should be made to the original, however if access/changes are necessary the examiner must know what they are doing and to record their actions.
Principle 2 above may raise the question: In what situation would changes to a suspect’s computer by a computer forensic examiner be necessary? Traditionally, the computer forensic examiner would make a copy (or acquire) information from a device which is turned off. A write-blocker would be used to make an exact bit for bit copy  of the original storage medium. The examiner would work then from this copy, leaving the original demonstrably unchanged.
However, sometimes it is not possible or desirable to switch a computer off. It may not be possible to switch a computer off if doing so would result in considerable financial or other loss for the owner. It may not be desirable to switch a computer off if doing so would mean that potentially valuable evidence may be lost. In both these circumstances the computer forensic examiner would need to carry out a ‘live acquisition’ which would involve running a small program on the suspect computer in order to copy (or acquire) the data to the examiner’s hard drive.
By running such a program and attaching a destination drive to the suspect computer, the examiner will make changes and/or additions to the state of the computer which were not present before his actions. Such actions would remain admissible as long as the examiner recorded their actions, was aware of their impact and was able to explain their actions.
Stages of an examination
For the purposes of this article the computer forensic examination process has been divided into six stages. Although they are presented in their usual chronological order, it is necessary during an examination to be flexible. For example, during the analysis stage the examiner may find a new lead which would warrant further computers being examined and would mean a return to the evaluation stage.
Forensic readiness is an important and occasionally overlooked stage in the examination process. In commercial computer forensics it can include educating clients about system preparedness; for example, forensic examinations will provide stronger evidence if a server or computer’s built-in auditing and logging systems are all switched on. For examiners there are many areas where prior organisation can help, including training, regular testing and verification of software and equipment, familiarity with legislation, dealing with unexpected issues (e.g., what to do if child pornography is present during a commercial job) and ensuring that your on-site acquisition kit is complete and in working order.
The evaluation stage includes the receiving of clear instructions, risk analysis and allocation of roles and resources. Risk analysis for law enforcement may include an assessment on the likelihood of physical threat on entering a suspect’s property and how best to deal with it. Commercial organisations also need to be aware of health and safety issues, while their evaluation would also cover reputational and financial risks on accepting a particular project.
The main part of the collection stage, acquisition, has been introduced above. If acquisition is to be carried out on-site rather than in a computer forensic laboratory then this stage would include identifying, securing and documenting the scene. Interviews or meetings with personnel who may hold information which could be relevant to the examination (which could include the end users of the computer, and the manager and person responsible for providing computer services) would usually be carried out at this stage. The ‘bagging and tagging’ audit trail would start here by sealing any materials in unique tamper-evident bags. Consideration also needs to be given to securely and safely transporting the material to the examiner’s laboratory.
Analysis depends on the specifics of each job. The examiner usually provides feedback to the client during analysis and from this dialogue the analysis may take a different path or be narrowed to specific areas. Analysis must be accurate, thorough, impartial, recorded, repeatable and completed within the time-scales available and resources allocated. There are myriad tools available for computer forensics analysis. It is our opinion that the examiner should use any tool they feel comfortable with as long as they can justify their choice. The main requirements of a computer forensic tool is that it does what it is meant to do and the only way for examiners to be sure of this is for them to regularly test and calibrate the tools they use before analysis takes place. Dual-tool verification can confirm result integrity during analysis (if with tool ‘A’ the examiner finds artefact ‘X’ at location ‘Y’, then tool ‘B’ should replicate these results.)
This stage usually involves the examiner producing a structured report on their findings, addressing the points in the initial instructions along with any subsequent instructions. It would also cover any other information which the examiner deems relevant to the investigation. The report must be written with the end reader in mind; in many cases the reader of the report will be non-technical, so the terminology should acknowledge this. The examiner should also be prepared to participate in meetings or telephone conferences to discuss and elaborate on the report.
Along with the readiness stage, the review stage is often overlooked or disregarded. This may be due to the perceived costs of doing work that is not billable, or the need ‘to get on with the next job’. However, a review stage incorporated into each examination can help save money and raise the level of quality by making future examinations more efficient and time effective. A review of an examination can be simple, quick and can begin during any of the above stages. It may include a basic ‘what went wrong and how can this be improved’ and a ‘what went well and how can it be incorporated into future examinations’. Feedback from the instructing party should also be sought. Any lessons learnt from this stage should be applied to the next examination and fed into the readiness stage.
Issues facing computer forensics
The issues facing computer forensics examiners can be broken down into three broad categories: technical, legal and administrative.
Encryption – Encrypted files or hard drives can be impossible for investigators to view without the correct key or password. Examiners should consider that the key or password may be stored elsewhere on the computer or on another computer which the suspect has had access to. It could also reside in the volatile memory of a computer (known as RAM  which is usually lost on computer shut-down; another reason to consider using live acquisition techniques as outlined above.
Increasing storage space – Storage media holds ever greater amounts of data which for the examiner means that their analysis computers need to have sufficient processing power and available storage to efficiently deal with searching and analysing enormous amounts of data.
New technologies – Computing is an ever-changing area, with new hardware, software and operating systems being constantly produced. No single computer forensic examiner can be an expert on all areas, though they may frequently be expected to analyse something which they haven’t dealt with before. In order to deal with this situation, the examiner should be prepared and able to test and experiment with the behaviour of new technologies. Networking and sharing knowledge with other computer forensic examiners is also very useful in this respect as it’s likely someone else may have already encountered the same issue.
Anti-forensics – Anti-forensics is the practice of attempting to thwart computer forensic analysis. This may include encryption, the over-writing of data to make it unrecoverable, the modification of files’ meta-data and file obfuscation (disguising files). As with encryption above, the evidence that such methods have been used may be stored elsewhere on the computer or on another computer which the suspect has had access to. In our experience, it is very rare to see anti-forensics tools used correctly and frequently enough to totally obscure either their presence or the presence of the evidence they were used to hide.
Legal arguments may confuse or distract from a computer examiner’s findings. An example here would be the ‘Trojan Defence’. A Trojan is a piece of computer code disguised as something benign but which has a hidden and malicious purpose. Trojans have many uses, and include key-logging , uploading and downloading of files and installation of viruses. A lawyer may be able to argue that actions on a computer were not carried out by a user but were automated by a Trojan without the user’s knowledge; such a Trojan Defence has been successfully used even when no trace of a Trojan or other malicious code was found on the suspect’s computer. In such cases, a competent opposing lawyer, supplied with evidence from a competent computer forensic analyst, should be able to dismiss such an argument.
Accepted standards – There are a plethora of standards and guidelines in computer forensics, few of which appear to be universally accepted. This is due to a number of reasons including standard-setting bodies being tied to particular legislations, standards being aimed either at law enforcement or commercial forensics but not at both, the authors of such standards not being accepted by their peers, or high joining fees dissuading practitioners from participating.
Fitness to practice – In many jurisdictions there is no qualifying body to check the competence and integrity of computer forensics professionals. In such cases anyone may present themselves as a computer forensic expert, which may result in computer forensic examinations of questionable quality and a negative view of the profession as a whole.
Resources and further reading
There does not appear to be a great amount of material covering computer forensics which is aimed at a non-technical readership. However the following links at links at the bottom of this page may prove to be of interest prove to be of interest:
1. Hacking: modifying a computer in way which was not originally intended in order to benefit the hacker’s goals.
2. Denial of Service attack: an attempt to prevent legitimate users of a computer system from having access to that system’s information or services.
3. Meta-data: at a basic level meta-data is data about data. It can be embedded within files or stored externally in a separate file and may contain information about the file’s author, format, creation date and so on.
4. Write blocker: a hardware device or software application which prevents any data from being modified or added to the storage medium being examined.
5. Bit copy: bit is a contraction of the term ‘binary digit’ and is the fundamental unit of computing. A bit copy refers to a sequential copy of every bit on a storage medium, which includes areas of the medium ‘invisible’ to the user.
6. RAM: Random Access Memory. RAM is a computer’s temporary workspace and is volatile, which means its contents are lost when the computer is powered off.
7. Key-logging: the recording of keyboard input giving the ability to read a user’s typed passwords, emails and other confidential information.